Emerging COVID-19 variants and their impact on SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, therapeutics and vaccines

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Queenie Fernandes, Varghese Philipose Inchakalody, Maysaloun Merhi, Sarra Mestiri, Nassiba Taib, Dina Moustafa Abo El-Ella, Takwa Bedhiafi, Afsheen Raza, Lobna Al-Zaidan, Mona O Mohsen, Mariam Ali Yousuf Al-Nesf, Ali Ait Hssain, Hadi Mohamad Yassine, Martin F Bachmann, Shahab Uddin, Said Dermime
1. Translational Cancer Research Facility, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.; 2. College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.; 3. Department of Biomedical Research, Immunology RIA, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.; 4. Allergy and Immunology Section, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.; 5. Medical Intensive Care Unit, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.; 6. Qatar University Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.; 7. Nuffield Department of Medicine, Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.; 8. Translational Research Institute and Dermatology Institute, Academic Health System, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Annals of Medicine (Taylor & Francis Online) 2022
54 : 1
524-540
10.1080/07853890.2022.2031274
English
Fernandes Q, Inchakalody VP, Merhi M, Mestiri S, Taib N, Moustafa Abo El-Ella D, Bedhiafi T, Raza A, Al-Zaidan L, Mohsen MO, Yousuf Al-Nesf MA, Hssain AA, Yassine HM, Bachmann MF, Uddin S, Dermime S. Emerging COVID-19 variants and their impact on SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, therapeutics and vaccines. Ann Med. 2022 Dec;54(1):524-540. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2022.2031274. PMID: 35132910; PMCID: PMC8843115.. Share Research.
Abstract
The emergence of novel and evolving variants of SARS-CoV-2 has fostered the need for change in the form of newer and more adaptive diagnostic methods for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections. On the other hand, developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic technologies is now more challenging due to emerging variants and varying symptoms exhibited among the infected individuals. In addition to this, vaccines remain the major mainstay of prevention and protection against infection. Novel vaccines and drugs are constantly being developed to unleash an immune response for the robust targeting of SARS-CoV-2 and its associated variants. In this review, we provide an updated perspective on the current challenges posed by the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 mutants/variants and the evolution of diagnostic techniques to enable their detection. In addition, we also discuss the development, formulation, working mechanisms, advantages, and drawbacks of some of the most used vaccines/therapeutic drugs and their subsequent immunological impact.
COVID-19; Coronaviruses; Omicron; SARS-CoV-2; Viral epidemic; diagnostic testing; immunological responses; vaccine.

The emergence of novel and evolving variants of SARS-CoV-2 has fostered the need for change in the form of newer and more adaptive diagnostic methods for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections. On the other hand, developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic technologies is now more challenging due to emerging variants and varying symptoms exhibited among the infected individuals. In addition to this, vaccines remain the major mainstay of prevention and protection against infection. Novel vaccines and drugs are constantly being developed to unleash an immune response for the robust targeting of SARS-CoV-2 and its associated variants. In this review, we provide an updated perspective on the current challenges posed by the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 mutants/variants and the evolution of diagnostic techniques to enable their detection. In addition, we also discuss the development, formulation, working mechanisms, advantages, and drawbacks of some of the most used vaccines/therapeutic drugs and their subsequent immunological impact.

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